Educational Psychology is an integral part of psychology which seeks to find how positive relationship/interaction can be established between the teacher, students and the learning process. According to Oladele (1998), educational psychology is an applied psychology which studies the ways in which the learner can be most effectively brought into contact with the learning process. Educational psychology is geared towards investigating or exploring the factors that will stimulate, enhance or obstruct the learning process. The knowledge and skills acquired from educational psychology will guide and direct in resolving the enormous problems confronting both the teachers and students in the classroom.
a. Psychology of Learning Educational Psychology
Psychology of Learning provides necessary theoretical and empirical data regarding the learning process. It describes the principles of learning, motivation strategies, transfer of learning, memory, retention and forgetting. The interest in Psychology of Learning is not just in academic per se, but is useful in understanding the fundamental problems or emotional development motivation, social behaviour and personality of people.
Burns (1995) regards learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour, which includes both observable activity and internal processes such as thinking, attitudes and emotions. Learning occurs right from the birth of the child and proceeds until he/she dies. Learning is acquired due to the prior experience one has gained. A child may learn from his/her environment (teacher) consciously or unconsciously, and in the process, his/her behaviour is being modified either negatively or positively. However, the essence of enrolling in the school by the students is to acquire desirable/positive behaviour under the tutelage of the teacher. To this end, learning can be described as a process by which an individual:
i. acquires a novel idea or experience to a situation;
ii. retains and applies the idea, skills and knowledge in solving the
iii. modify one’s behaviour by the experience gained in the past and
making the change permanent.
In view of the above points, learning is considered as:
1) relatively permanent change in behaviour not just a visible but also a manifest responses of the learner modifying the learner’s behaviour.
2) being dependent on previously acquired experience.
3) Some behaviour cannot be described as being learnt because they occur at the moment of anatomical maturation. This type of learning occurs as one matures physically.