Table of Contents
Education is as important to man as life is to him. This means that it will not be wrong to say that without education, there will be no existence at all. Education enables man to learn about himself and his environment. Just as man grows physically, that is how he grows mentally, and the mental development of man is nothing but education. Education in Nigerian developed through processes and stages from indigenous to western. Nigeria would not have experienced any form of growth without education: social, religious, educational or economical.
Education varies from place of place and from time to time. This term educational has not lent itself to any strict consensual definition as it depends on the perspective from which one views. It can be considered as the cultural norms of a society by people to transfer cultural norms and values to the succeeding generations so as to continue the existence and development of the society.
Long before the advent of both Islamic and Western education, Nigeria had an indigenous type of education. However, modern influence has greatly affected the mode of education that existed over 15 decades back. This happened as a result of colonial interference by the Europeans.
Education is the process through which an individual, group of people or an entire community learn new things. It could be formal or informal. The informal kind of education could be done without any structured plan. Writing is not done, and there is no organized staff structured because it is not done in a classroom. The formal education is properly organized, at the end of which a certificate is issued.
The word ‘education’ is generally used to refer to the development of human beings in the cognitive, affective, psychomotor and psychoproductive domains. General, educationist agree that education involves a desirable change in human behaviour through the process of teaching and learning. This means that if a person exhibits behaviours considered unacceptable in the societal because it contradicts the norms, such person may be considered an uneducated person, despite the fact that he had passed through the four walls of an educational institution. The society, generally, expects an educated person to behave in a manner that is acceptable to the society. Education, as a process of initiating the child into cherished norms and skills, is designed and implemented by the more matured or the adult members of the society to effect the desirable changes in the younger ones, from one generation to the other.
The word education is derived from two Latin words ‘educare’ and ‘educere’ respectively. ‘Educare’ is interpreted to mean; to train or to form or to mould. Educare, therefore,implies that the society trains, forms or moulds the individual to achieve the societal needs and aspirations.
‘Educere’ on the other hand means: to build, to lead or to develop. This is in agreement with the humanist’s perspective of education. They argue that the essence of education is to develop the natural potentialities in the child to enable him function in the society according to his abilities, interest and needs. ‘Educare’ is society-centred or subject matter-centred. But ‘educere’ concept of education centres on the child.
Education can generally be classified into three forms: formal, informal and non-formal education.
This is the type of education that is formally received in a regular school setting like the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. Formal education is carefully structured, where well trained persons are used in the transfer of knowledge on regular basis. The curriculum, the learning environment, instructional materials, testing and evaluation, human resources and others are planned ahead of time to achieve specific objectives within the time frame. It is structured with time of entry and time of exit. Specific books are used for teaching and students sit in classrooms. The learner is given a certificate at the end of his or her learning period.
The agencies of learning include the home, church or mosque, peer-group, mass-media etc. education goes beyond the formal setting. Informal education can be received in the market place, farm, along the road, at place of work, playground and so on. Though not systematically planned like the formal education, informal education equally provides learning opportunities for the child to develop his or her innate abilities. The informal form education helps the child to increase his or her scope of learning and build up a better understanding to succeed in the formal education system.
Everything a person learns from his or her family members, peers, associations etc., fall under the informal education. Learners can consciously or and unconsciously learn from one another within and outside the society. Informal education is still relevant today as people can always learn without attending the traditional formal school.
This form of education has some basic characteristics of formal education like planned programme of action, contact persons, programmed assignment or examination and others, but it is not formal. It is non-formal because it is not carried out within the regular school system. It is a type of education that is mainly received through workshops, seminars, correspondences, television and the mass media. In a way, it could be used to complement the formal education. In case of correspondence, the learning process is spread over the years but it lacks the regular person to person interaction. It is important because it helps to up-date knowledge as in the case of workshops and seminars, and for care of the education of particular class as in the case of the correspondence programme. These three forms of education are important for human and societal growth. Therefore, they should all be encouraged. A balanced learning is that which involves all the forms of education, even though they don’t have to be consciously achieved.
Nigeria, like every other society, had its own traditional form of education. Indigenous education may be seen as the collection of all the processes by which a child develops his abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviours, which are positive to the society in which they live. It is an informal form of education usually transferred from one generation to another by word of mouth or general experience of how things are done in the society.
Traditional education had its influence on the people. However, whatever is taught applied only to the particular society in which the learner was brought up. In most cases traditional norms and values that control the activities of people in society vary according to the society. Today, even with the presence of the western education, the traditional education still plays a vital role in character development.
- It is practical and devoid of book knowledge and theories.
- It is concerned with issues usually of immediate need.
- Leaners learn by doing.
- It is conservative. It does not encourage change.
- It is not expensive as there is no need to spend on books or research items.
- Physical training: They children in the African environment love to learn new things. They engage in cutting down trees, climbing trees, cultural dances, local wrestling etc. these are part of the requirements that they needed to fit in their society.
- Development of character
- Respect for elders, peers and leaders
- Intellectual training
- Vocational training
- Promotion of culture
Modern education has a link back to the Greeks from around the 8th to 5th century B.C. it is traced back to the time of the Spartans and Athens. For Sparta, the primary aim of education at that time was security – the people are taught to defend the state and citizens. In the cause of learning, they are put through painful physical training: children were made to go through rough and hard life. They went hunting barefooted in all weathers, eating coarse food, sleeping on hard beds and carrying only single sets of clothes. Several other activities which included swimming and gymnastics formed part of their learning.
Children of ages 1- 6 were first trained by their mothers. From 7 – 18 years their training becomes more severe. From 18 – 19 years, graduates become cadets and joined full military service. They continue to train and get better prepared for the work till old age.
Athens had a different situation from that of Sparta. It was a commercial centre and it needed education for social service rather than warfare. There were several classes of citizens which included philosophers, kings, artisans, fighters, merchants and professional men who had independent means. All the category of people learnt to fit in their places for the progress of the state through some form of education. The Athens education starts at home with mothers taking charge of the child from age 1 – 7. From the ages of 7 – 11 years, children started receiving lessons in ethics, light physical drill and general games.
Gymnastic training, jumping, running, hurling, wrestling and javelin and discuss throwing formed part of the training from ages 12 – 14 years. They were taught discipline by teachers who were trained for the purpose. One outstanding contribution of the Greek education which facilitated the development of their education was the alphabet. They modified the Phoenician alphabet developed from Egyptian character, added vowel sounds and changed the direction of writing to the present left to right which in turn made learning and writing the alphabet easier and quicker.
The Greek civilization spread to the world through some great Greek men on self-exile in other countries. Roman education like many others started from home with their mothers. The fathers concentrated on intellectual teaching. Rome had the advantage of an influx of some Greek teachers of grammar, rhetoric, philosophy and arts, and science. This enabled a kind of fusion of both Greek and Roman education. The Roman education became a model for many other educational programs of many countries as more attention started shifting towards Rome and Roman education.
Julius Caesar was a key player in the progress of Roman education around the 1st century B.C. He gave special attention to teachers of liberal arts. Augustus Caesar opened up many public libraries in Rome.
In the 2nd century B.C., emperors Hadvain (117 – 138), Antonius Pius (138 – 161) and Markus Aurelius (161 – 180) expanded the educational frontiers of Rome to the whole Roman Empire, in which all municipalities were expected to maintain the establishment of professional teachers. Gradually, the Roman state took over the running of all secondary and higher institutions and fixed salaries of teachers according to their areas of specialty.
In Roman education, the schools were planned in stages to handle teaching of younger to older students the way we have it today.
This stage was made up of children between the ages of 6 – 11 years. They were taught basic reading skills and counting. The children could identify letters and read simple words.
This is the second stage of education where children of ages 12 and 13 who have performed well in the elementary schools are given further educational training. They taught the use of correct speech, poetry and prose.
This was meant for those who performed best in grammar school. They are taught to take up a career in public life or government. It is more of a period of learning to be independent and becoming productive for the community.
The Dark Ages refer to the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. It is assumed that the Dark Age came as a result of a faulty educational system that befell the Roman civilization. The promising educational structure which built up over years suddenly went down and brought untold worries to the people because they believed it was an important heritage that should not be lost. However, the Christian church and Islamic scholars were available to give a helping hand in rescuing the situation. That was how religion became involve in educational assistance. It became a necessary tool for proper evangelisation. Not long, parishes and chapels started running elementary schools, and secondary schools latter started.
The Society of Jesus known as the Jesuits under Ignatius Yoloya became interested in education around the 16th century A.D. they paid great attention to teacher training and set up operational guidelines for the running of her schools. Britain became a beneficiary of the Jesuits educational institution as a Roman colony.
Islamic scholars were not left out among the beneficiaries of the Greek and Roman Development in education as they got useful manuscripts that assisted in different areas of endeavour. Sciences, astronomy, architecture, and medicine were areas of scholarship that grew out of the progress in the mentioned educational progress.
- Functional relevance,
- Lifelong education,
- Leaning should be practical, etc.
Education is essential
- to improve the society.
- to secure the history of a people.
- to help people earn a living.
- to help people take good care of themselves.
- to earn peaceful living among people of different cultural and geographical background.
Several adjustments were done to take the educational standard and structure of Nigerian education what it is today. Comparing the type of formal education in Nigeria before the independence with what is obtainable today, it would be seen that the earlier system of education was inadequate and unsatisfactory to the nations yearning and aspirations. Nduka Fafunwa and some other scholars hold the view that education was parochial. To check this, the then federal government of Nigeria adopted education as an instrument par excellence for promoting national development. The decision led to the establishment of the 6-3-3-4 system of education.
The of 6-3-3-4 system of education started as far back as 8th September 1969 during the international literacy day when the federal commissioner for education, Mr. Wenike Briggs inaugurated a conference which came up with the 6-3-3-4 programme. Omolewa (1986) stated that the programme was intended to foster national unity, it was designed to inject functionality into the Nigeria school system. The 6-3-3-4 was fashioned to produce graduates who would be able to make use of their hand the head and the heart (the 3Hs of education). Before it eventually took off in 1982, there had been inputs by various sectors of Nigeria professional community.
The 6-3-3-4 system of education was largely accepted and considered capable of encouraging educational revolution in Nigeria. Hence step in the right direction, towards the technological development of the nation however, the current situation on ground as far from this ideal this system seems to be suffering from poor and shoddy implementation.
This is a type of educational system where students would spend six years in the primary school, three years in the junior secondary school, three years in the senior secondary school and four years in the tertiary institutions such as colleges of education, polytechnic and universities respectively.
Primary education as regards the 6-3-3-4 system of education is the elementary type of education for children between the ages of 6 to 11 years. This is the foundational staged of education after which all the others take a queue. Therefore, it determines the success or failure of the whole system. The junior and senior secondary schools are joined and called secondary school. Secondary education is received after completion of primary school before proceeding to acquire any tertiary education (National policy and education 1981).
The 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria is concerned with job. It concentrates on manual activities, technical proficiency, and respect for dignity of labour and economic efficiency. It is to provide the child with basic tools to prepare him for local craft. The secondary stage emphases the acquisition of vocational skills. And the tertiary stage is concerned with development of professionalism so as to minimize unemployment and produce skilled manpower, in science and technology. It is to build economic and social capability in the citizens of the country.
It is also stated in the national policy on education that a priority of place is will be given to religion and moral instruction for the moral and spiritual growth of the people. No child will be forced to take religious instructions contrary to their wishes or that of their parents. This will be safe for the country in maintaining order and peaceful coexistence in the society.
The new policy had some challenges. For it to get full implementation, it needed qualified personnel in quantity and quality.
- Teachers in the science, technical and vocational subjects.
- Schools inspectors and education supervisor for quality control for the efficient and effective running of the schools programmes
- Supportive staff such as laboratory assistance library assistance, workshop attendants etc.
- Guidance counsellors to guide for proper placement having the adequate knowledge of individual’s aptitude and interest.
There was shortage of men and materials even at the federal level to implement the 6-3-3-4 system of education. The technical and vocational aspects were more emphasised for science and technical education. The materials were either not adequately supplied or were not properly maintained such that some got destroyed or stolen. The new system of education was planned during the years of plenty (the oil boom), but the implementation came when the oil boom was declining. The unhealthy financial state of the country affected the implementation of the policy such that it almost was brought to a standstill. There were worries about the money with which to fund the new system.
The new system of education was a conscious move by the government to positively change to the position of the nation through education. It was a means of encouraging innovation and productivity in the nation, so that it can experience good process of development. However, the new system was greeted with lukewarm attitude by the people, while the federal government also had its own share of the blames as revealed at the one day seminar of the 6-3-3-4 education system and the drive for self-employment held at the University of Ilorin, faculty of education. At the seminar, the federal government was criticized for deliberately seizing the goal of the system by paying more attention to the N.D.E (National Director of Employment) in various job placements.
Unfortunate, the attitude of the government and people of Nigeria towards solving national problem of development was not at its best; and it seemed to validate the observation of some authors who felt the 6-3-3-4 programme might be an unhealthy ambition for the country’s level of seriousness, reading from the methods implementation.
- Free and compulsory education to be given to encourage the grassroots communities to acquire education.
- Seminars and public awareness to be organised to teach the importance of education.
- Building of self-help projects and provision of textbooks to students through universal basic education board (UBEB).
- Instruments used for practical and research should be modernize for better result and faster work.
- The new system of 6-3-3-4 means that a child should spend 6 years in primary school, 3 years in junior secondary with JSSCE certification, and 3 years in secondary school with SSCE certificate.
- The government has established another examination body called National Examination Council (NECO) to supplement the West African Examination Council WAEC.
- In this modern time, the response of the people is high as a lot of people want to be educated.
- The government and private organisations are encouraging the process through grants, scholarships and other forms of assistance.
- Private and public schools have increased over the years, and they are found in cities and rural communities.
- Even uneducated parents like farmers, and cattle rearers like the Fulanis who move place to place with their cattle now show interest in education.
Christian Missionaries from Sierra-Leone and Britain began their activities in Nigeria in 1842. Their focus was evangelism, which gave rise to the early mission schools. They needed to educate the people as they advance their mission of Christianising the nations. The people had to learn reading and writing, especially in English, so as to make communication easy and effective.
There existed two highly developed education system in Nigeria before the western education was introduced. The two systems of education are the traditional education which is based on the culture of the people and the Islamic education which based on the Islamic religion.
The Christian missionary entry into Nigeria in 1842 was not the first. The Portuguese merchants had visited Lagos and Benin as early as 1472. By 1485 they had started trading activities with the people of Benin. By 1515, influenced by Portuguese trades, Catholic missionaries had established a primary school in the Oba’s palace for the children of the Oba and his chiefs, and they were all converted to Christianity. The Catholic missionary activities also extended to Brass, Akassa, Warri where churches and schools were established. But the catholic influence was almost wiped out by the slave trade that ravaged West Africa for nearly three hundred years. Education as at that time was aimed at enabling the Africans participate effectively in commerce. Hence, it was argued that the Portuguese were mainly interested in commerce but they nevertheless realized that if Africans were to be customers, they must have some rudiments on education and accept Christianity.
The industrial revolution which began in Europe in the 18th century brought the need for the Europeans to look for markets where they could buy raw materials and sell their manufactured products. Africa became central in their hope for this transaction. They sent explorers to West Africa with Nigeria inclusive. Between 1795 and 1850 great impact had been made in the exploration of the continent of Africa by men like Mungo Park, Clapperton, Lander Brothers and Heinrich Barth. The feedback was very encouraging to the European continent.
Slave trade was the major trade between Africa and Europe in the beginning. It had to be abolished when it became obvious to right thinking people that it was inhuman to trade humans. After the law abolishing slave trade by the British parliament, there seemed to be no end to human trade even in West Africa. The humanitarians in Europe then proposed that the surest way to end the trade was to introduce alternative trade.
However, there were conflicting responses on the deliberations. One of the two groups that emerged held the belief that the European industrialists would be disadvantaged. They claimed that the abolition of the slave trade and the trans-Atlantic trade would affect the production of raw materials for their industries. This is because their major supply of raw materials came from the African continent.
The second school of thought felt that the move was championed by some religious denominations in Europe, who believed that slave trade was morally wrong. To these missionaries, the continent should be penetrated with the word of God, so as to change their orientation from vices. This humanitarian position was further encouraged by Thomas Fowell Brixton in his book The African Slave Trade and Its Remedy published in 1840. He charged the missionaries and the humanitarians as well as the industrialist to introduce “the Bible and plough”, which meant that they should preach the gospel to the people and at the same time engage in business. In this way, the fight against slave trade will become a success.
Hence, it could be convenient to argue that the initial reasons for the European penetration into Nigeria in particular and Africa in general in the 1940s were both religious and economic. The early Christian missionaries came for the main assignment of evangelism, whereas the industrialist came to trade.
The missionaries started establishing schools when they realized it would make their mission easier. They started by establishing schools in church premises. As other denominations came in, they were all actively establishing their own churches and schools and gradually expanding their congregations. They used education as a means of converting Nigerians into their various denominations. Because of this overriding interest on evangelism, the missions confined themselves within the area of literacy, religion and moral education. Not all Africans welcomed them, especially in the area of religion, but gradually they gained way into the hearts of the people with their good gifts and concerns.
There were specific reasons why the Christian missionary schools were established. They are as shown below:
- The missionaries wanted to train indigenous manpower to carry out the evangelical work to the various local communities,
- They trained lower manpower to serve as interpreters, messengers, clerks, cleaners, etc. for the various missions and the British Businessmen.
- They needed to teach the bible in the language they understood, so it was important for the people to learn English.
- They needed to teach the people how to take care of themselves.
The curriculum contents of the schools were mainly Christian Religion, Arithmetic, Reading and Writing, which were all taught using English Language. Other subsidiaries included agriculture, nature study, and craft. The main text of reference was the Holy Bible and other related commentaries. There was no separation between the church and the school. The school teachers were also the church agents and their wives.
The schools did not run without challenges. There were a number of problems identified in the operation of the early mission schools.
- The schools lacked central school laws which lead to non-uniform standard for running schools.
- The schools lacked standard qualification for teachers.
- The movement of teachers and pupils was not checked resulting to irregular attendance.
- The focus of the school was religion.
- There were no trained teachers and no training colleges.
- There was lack of common syllabus and no standard textbooks; the few that were available were not relevant to the local people.
- There was no uniformity in teachers’ condition of service and no job security for the teachers.
- There was acute shortage of fund and this affected the availability of qualified teachers.
- In some cases, some older pupils were used to teach the younger ones. This affected quality.
- The method of teaching was mainly by rote.
- The school lacked adequate supervision as well as teaching and learning materials and necessary facilities.
- It created the problem of educational imbalance between the northern and southern parts of Nigeria.
- There was no regulated standard examination for all the schools.
- The missions did not show serious interest and commitment in secondary and vocational education in Nigeria.
- There work was a good foundation for the advent of Western Education in Nigeria and in Africa at large.
- It was in their time the English language was introduced into the Nigerian educational system, and which eventually becomes the nation’s official language of communication among various tribal and ethnic groups.
- They produced the first written words in local languages. For instance, Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther introduced Yoruba Language to writing and translated several books and the Bible into Yoruba.
- They helped in eradicating slave trade and some other forms of negative practices in Nigeria such as human sacrifices, killing of twins and the Osu caste system.
- They introduced Christianity in Nigeria.
The era between 1842 and 1882 is regarded in history of Nigeria education as period of exclusive missionary enterprise. Within this period the various missionary organizations in Nigeria run the education according to their respective philosophies, level of manpower available, as well as the availability of material and financial resources. The colonial government was silent over the educational activities of the missions then.
The non-interference of the British colonial government in Nigeria at the period under review could be attributed to the following factors:
- Political factor
Religious interest preceded political interest at this early British contact in Nigeria. For instance the missionaries settled in Nigeria for pure evangelical work in 1842. From this period until 1851 and 1861 when Lagos was bombarded by and ceded to the British government, respectively, there was no British political control over any part of Nigeria. This means that the British Colonial Government took over Lagos as a colony in 1861. It was then that she became visibly present in the politics of the country.
- British Government Policy on Education
In Britain then, education was decentralized and the private and religious organizations were allowed to establish and run schools on their own. The same attitude was upheld by the colonial authority in Nigeria.
- Financial Factor
The British Colonial Government in Nigeria was not ready to interfere on the establishment and management of schools, early because of the cost effect.
The colonial education was not entirely the same with the mission education in Nigeria. It was largely elitist, utilitarian and conservative. The objectives of the colonial education were:
- To produce cheap manpower that could be used as interpreters, messengers, artisans and clerks in running the course of colonialism.
- To train indigenous youths who could help the rural farmers in planting, harvesting and processing cash crops which were exported to feed European industries with raw materials.
- To produce semi-literate citizens that could conform and be absorbed as instruments for actualizing the British philosophy of colonialism.
The first secondary school in Nigeria was the CMS Grammar School, Lagos in 1859. It was used to train manpower for the colonial administration and European companies. The school curriculum emphasized the teaching of grammar and Latin. Not much was done in the area of science. At this period, there were three types of secondary institutions emerged. They were the grammar or classical education schools, the teacher-training institutions and the vocational and agricultural schools. The best grammar school at that time was the one that began in 1859 by the CMS. It was Nigeria’s first secondary grammar school in Lago. It remained the major source for the recruitment of clerks for the colonial administration and other European trading companies. The first attempt at teacher training in Nigeria was the CMS training institution at Abeokuta which was founded in 1853 under the leadership of Richard Charnley Paley of Peterhouse.
To man the institution, Mr T. B. Macauley succeeded R. C. Paley after his death. Rev. Henry Townsend observed that Mr Macaulay’s contribution was very academic and unsuitable, so he was replaced by a Basle Seminary-trained school master, Mr. W. Kirkham in 1856, but he died a year later. Mr W. Kirkham was succeeded by Rev. Gottlieb Frederick Ehler, a Basle Seminary man who had been a missionary in Abeokuta since 1855, took over the institution in 1857 and remained in charge of the institution until his death in 1865.
In 1856 an industrial institution was established at Abeokuta which taught brick-making, carpentry, dyeing and printing. It also served as a depot for receiving, preparing and sending cotton to England according to Taiwo (1980). In his effort to regenerate Africa by calling forth her resources, Venn had the idea of cotton production in Abeokuta.
In 1876, The Roman Catholic started agricultural school at Topo. Here, rudiments of agricultural production were taught to students and families that settled on plantations. The products were put on sale and the proceeds were ploughed to offset the running cost of the institution. This Topo School failed because of Roman Catholic policy of admitting only her denominational converts. Topo School was eventually turned into an orphanage and centre for juvenile delinquents. The contribution of the church in education had greatly increased at this time. They used Africans for the development of local languages, especially Igbo and Yoruba Languages, to enhance literacy among the indigenous people. It was considered necessary for the missions to translate relevant portions or the whole of the Bible into the languages of the people. That was how they could achieve their aim of spreading the gospel to the unreached people of Nigeria at that time.
“Irohin” (a newspaper printed in Yoruba language) was published fortnightly. It was meant to get the people to learn by themselves. That is, they should build the habit of seeking information by reading. And in addition to promoting reading skills, the journal could get the people educated. At this time, learners were estimated at about 3,000. The journal was a big contribution to the spreading of literacy especially as there was little printed material in the Yoruba language. This made it obvious that the early Christian mission school was an adjunct of the church, for it was a replica of a similar development in Britain during the Dark ages.
- Problems of Early Secondary Schools
The early schools did not exist without identifiable problems. Adesina (1977) itemized these problems.
- Organizational challenge
Due to lack of central school laws, there were no legally constituted government to control the modalities of how the schools should run. Each mission school had its separate style of administration. Parents who were accustomed to taking their children from one missionary school to the other were not serious with either the schools or the missions.
- There was problem of standard qualifications for teachers
The teachers went to school at will. Students went to school any time they liked and left the school before its time to go. They could also drop out of school any time before the completion of their training. For instance, as it was reported that in Hope Wadell’s School at Creek Town, in one year the attendance was 120 in January, 68 in July, 54 in November, and 47 in December.
- Emphasis on the Bible
The educational programme strongly emphasized Bible study. This resulted in conflicting ideas between the missionaries and the native about the concepts of school. For instance, the Bonny Chiefs told Rev. Samuel Crowther that they did not want any religious education for their children because the children had enough of that at home. They would like the schools to teach their children ‘how to gauge palm-oil’ and ‘other mercantile business.’ Some parents at this time believed that the missionary schools isolated their children from the home by teaching disrespect to elders and tradition.
- Financial Constraint
Schools were maintained from Sunday collections and donations from abroad. The limitation of funds made the missions to start charging fees ranging from four pence to six pence a month in primary schools and four guineas to six guineas a year in Grammar schools. They received lower fees in areas where the people were reluctant about going to school. But they received higher fees from people in areas where the larger group showed great interest in schooling. For example, schools in certain areas in Yoruba land and Rivers charged three pence a month while fees were highest in Igbo land where as much as eight pence per month was charged.
- Problem of Personnel
result of financial constraint, the missions could not employ the best
workforce they would need. They had only few people to do the many works they
had to do in the schools. The financial strength of each mission determined the
size, quality and retention level of its personnel. In the first place, there
were no available trained teachers locally, and it was not until the turn of
the 19th century that teacher training institutions were set up. Even if the
teachers were available, there was only little money to go round. This made the
Methodists to close down their girl’s grammar school in 1892, and it did not
reopened until 1912. The CMS grammar
school for a long time had little or no budget for equipment and repairs.
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